Jawaharlal Nehru, son of Motilal Nehru, husband of Kamala Nehru and father of Indira Gandhi, was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad, India and he lived for 75 years as he died on May 27. He was the first Prime Minister of Independent India and he played a very important role in Indian Politics.
He was an influential leader. He played a major role in the Independence of India along with Mahatma Gandhi. His nationalism and his role and struggle in the freedom movement are closely related. He was successful in understanding India’s condition. Nehru’s role did not receive as much attention as it deserved. He had a very impressive educational status and he was selfless. He was a perfect role model and a guide
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU AND THE NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT
It was the first time where Jawaharlal Nehru had big involvement at the onset of the non-cooperation movement, which was in the year 1920. Nehru joined this satyagraha and later, he was arrested for involving himself in the non-government activity but he was released after a few months.
Nehru was a very loyal person as he denied to join the Swaraj Party, which was formed by Motilal Nehru and CR Das and he was there with Gandhi in his camp. When he got released, he received lots of appreciation as a dynamic congress leader. After that, he became president of the Allahabad Congress committee in 1923.
Nehru’s intention was to make India completely free and to provide ultimatum to the British Government to grant India dominion status.
NEHRU AND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT
At the age of 20, Nehru was elected as the president of Congress for the first time. During the Lahore conference, he declared the goal for complete freedom of Purna Swaraj. Civil Disobedience Movement was launched after the Lahore Congress and Nehru completely involved himself in protest for non-violence. He got arrested again in 1930 and he was prisoned for a longer time. After he got released, he formed the socialist party within Congress and he worked hard and he did every possible thing in order to make India Independent.
NEHRU AND THE LAST DAYS OF INDAN FREEDOM STRUGGLE :
In 1935, in the Government of India Act, which was called for nationwide elections, Nehru supported Congress and he campaigned, although he did not stand by himself for elections. Gandhi started giving more concentration towards the spiritual development of his followers and he dissociated himself from the direct political action, so during this phase, Nehru got more attention.
He became Congress president in consecutive years of 1936 and 1937.
After the formation of Fending camps by Bose and Gandhi, Nehru once more faced the dilemma of politics, but then he decided to take Gandhi’s side and he adopted his methods. After some time, Bose resigned as the Congress President.
Nehru denied compromising with the Muslim league. Bose policy was not supported by Nehru and he extended support towards Allied. At the same time, Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement in 1945. World war 2 was over and the new Labor Government of Britain was ready to grant India it’s freedom. But the British Government was waiting for the elections of 1945.
Nehru was again arrested as he was the center of activities. Although his fight for India’s success was successful. He started his journey for the establishment of New India. India got Independent on 15th August 1947.
An objective resolution was moved in 1946 by Nehru. There were certain fundamental principle:
- India should be Democratic, sovereign and republic state.
- It contained the basic principle of Federalism .
- The basic liberties of India was followed by people of India such as free to express, free to form an association.
- All citizens should be treated equally without any discrimination.
It later became the preamble of our constitution, which has the pet name “Identity card of the Indian constitution”.
Objective Resolution was a momentous resolution because it outlined the area of the constitution of Independent India and it also provides the framework within which the work of the constitution-making proceeded. During his speech, he said that his mind went back to the struggles in the past for such documentation of rights. Objective Resolution guaranteed it’s citizens the following rights: equality, justice, freedom, et
Nehru did not define the specific form of Democracy. He wasn’t copying anyone. The establishment of a system of Government was done in India, and he said that it needs to fit in with the temper of people and it should be accepted by them. Nehru’s thinking was very creative.
THE WILL OF PEOPLE:
Somnath Lahiri, a communist member, saw the bad side of British Imperialism hanging over the deliberation of the Constituent Assembly. He tried his best to convince Indians to free themselves from the influences of Imperial rule. In 1946-47, during wintertime, as Assembly deliberated, the British were still there in India.
There was an interim administration which was headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, but it was only allowed to operate under the Viceroy and the British Government in London.
Nehru said that most of the nationalist leaders wanted a different kind of constituent assembly. Somnath Lahiri congratulated Nehru for the expression he made within Indian people.
Nehru traveled to various subcontinents campaigning for the Congress, going around in bullocks, trains, carts, etc. For the Independence of India, Nehru struggled a lot. He gave his opinion and point of view in front of thousands of people. This process involved standing and speaking in front of millions of people.
WHAT DID NEHRU DO FOR FREEDOM
Jawaharlal Nehru was imprisoned nine times during the freedom struggle and was in jail for 3259 days. He almost spent 9 years of his life in Jail. He won the hearts of people through his speech and various Ideas for the Independence of India.
Before Nehru entered politics, he was a rich person but his family lost a huge amount of money during the freedom struggle. Nehru did not had any private secretary as he couldn’t afford one. He collected some amount of money from the books, which he wrote. A.O.Mathai, his personal secretary, later on, wrote a book that revealed the financial struggles which were faced by Jawaharlal Nehru.
As most of the time, Nehru was in prison so because of that he wasn’t able to take good care of his daughter named ‘Indira’ which was further revealed as ‘letter to Indira’. There was a heavy impact of politics on his personal life. When Nehru was jailed, his wife became ill and she was further transferred to Switzerland for the proper treatment. Whenever Gandhi announced any protest against British, Nehru was the first one to participate amongst all.
EARLY YEARS OF NEHRU IN THE INDIA’S STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE
It is the fact that Nehru was born in the family of politics as his father Motilal Nehru started as a congressman. Nehru lived for a long duration of time in England for the sake of his studies.
While studying there as a student, he completely sensed the discrimination which was faced by Indians, because of which he started participating in freedom struggles. When he returned, he realized that the condition of India was getting worst than he had ever imagined.
Nehru got motivated by Gandhi and he decided to travel across India in order to collect more amount of people for the struggle for independence of India.
After some time, Gandhi was successful in his Champaran movement and Nehru’s trust towards Gandhi increased. Therefore, he continued to get motivated by Gandhi and decided to fight for India’s independence.
His first and major contribution was in the non-cooperation movement in 1920. He participated whole-heartedly in Satyagraha and he struggled a lot for the independence of India.